The first image depicts CA-insulin synthesis. It is a process which starts at the DNA. The DNA  code consists of three letters, and serves as initial condition for CA-insulin. Any change in the code will initiate a different CA-protein. Each line is a differentiation state of CA-insulin. Initially amino acids are added to the molecule. As it grows it changes its conformation, and  matures. Then it ages and finally disintegrates, which is known as catabolism. The CA depicts the history of one molecule.


The insulin pool is a mixture of all these states. In other words the insulin pool consists of  molecules with different ages. . All  CA-states are represented in the CA-insulin pool, yet only  mature molecules control glucose metabolism. Insulin molecules obey the FI-FO rule (First In, First Out). The first entering the pool will also be the first to disappear. Insulin turnover is an ordered process.

The following image depicts insulin control of glucose metabolism. In  normal conditions, CA-glucose is a process which starts when a glucose molecule is formed. Glucose  is represented by the gray color.  Each state represents the context or compartment within which the molecule exists.  Transition from state to state is known as gluco-neogenesis.  CA-insulin controls glucose only in its final state, since only then insulin matures. Under this control  the CA produces 384 glucose units.

Insulin resistance

Insulin is a hormone  which lowers  glucose in  body fluids. In diabetes mellitus the hormone becomes less efficient in lowering glucose, which is called insulin resistance.

The next CA couple illustrates how insulin resistance might  operate.. CA- insulin  starts at the DNA molecule and its code is {ATAGGGATA}. Yet it differentiates (ages) slower. It becomes pro-insulin but  does not mature further. Insulin  control of the glucose process is weaker, which can be judged from its glucose content . The latter generates 536 glucose units,  a state which is known as hyper-glycemia.

Further reading:
Streaming proteins
Diabetes mellitus

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