Trasposons cause chromosome pulverization

Recent advances in DNA sequencing and genome wide association studies (GWAS),  have revolutionized the field of genomics. They reveal a dynamic genome that continually changes. A vibrant entity.

Transposons (TEs) driven by transposases, continually reshuffle the genome.  They exist in two states:
1. Basic or ground state, when TE turnover is low.
2. Active, in response to stress.
TEs are controled by epigenesis which keepsthem at a ground state. They are activated by  stress.

Transposases move activated TEs around, which  cause mutations, fusion proteins, chromosome  breakage and aneuploidy. These are biomarkers  of TE turnover. Fusion proteins are biochemical markers. Chromosomal changes and aneuploidy are cytological biomarkers. Whenever you spot one of these markers you know  that TEs were activated by stress.

Massive Genomic Rearrangement Acquired in a Single Catastrophic Event during Cancer Development are bio markers of TEs response to stress.