Clinical trials are in a state of crisis. This  crisis is an epiphenomenon of a profound crisis in medicine, which lacks conceptual tools to handle complexity and optimality.
Complexity drives clinical trials to their demise.

Resistance to treatment is the hallmark  of cancer.  Initially cancer yields to chemotherapy, yet with time tumor becomes refractory to any treatment.
Rising  cancer resistance is linked to another  tumor attribute,
known as  de-differentiation.  

Three processes contribute to rising cancer resistance:
1. De-differentiation
2. Cell initiated resistance:
            Enhanced drug clearance.
            Multiplication of  insensitive processes.
            Elimination of receptors to a drug.
3. Chemotherapy eliminates responding cells and promotes  resistant clones. It promotes de-differentiation

Cancer is more then just a tumor. Cancer is an interaction between organism and tumor. Since this interaction cannot be read off the genome, molecular biology propagates the cancer-tumor synonym